VCE (SAT) @ ISW = 0.65A
TEMPERATURE – °C
Figure 10. Switch Saturation Voltage In
Step-Up Mode vs. Temperature
VCE (SAT) @ ISW = 0.65A
TEMPERATURE – °C
Figure 11. Switch Saturation Voltage In
Step-Down Mode vs. Temperature
THEORY OF OPERATION
The ADP1108 is a flexible, low power Switch Mode Power
Supply (SMPS) controller. The regulated output voltage can be
greater than the input voltage (boost or step-up mode) or less
than the input (buck or step-down mode). This device uses a
gated-oscillator technique to provide very high performance
with low quiescent current.
A functional block diagram of the ADP1108 is shown on
the front page. The internal 1.245 V reference is connected to
one input of the comparator, while the other input is externally
connected (via the FB pin) to a feedback network connected to
the regulated output. When the voltage at the FB pin falls
below 1.245 V, the 19 kHz oscillator turns on. A driver amplifier
provides base drive to the internal power switch, and the switching
action raises the output voltage. When the voltage at the FB pin
exceeds 1.245 V, the oscillator is shut off. While the oscillator is
off, the ADP1108 quiescent current is only 110 µA. The
comparator includes a small amount of hysteresis, which
ensures loop stability without requiring external components
for frequency compensation.
The maximum current in the internal power switch can be set
by connecting a resistor between VIN and the ILIM pin. When
the maximum current is exceeded, the switch is turned OFF.
The current limit circuitry has a time delay of about 2 µs. If
an external resistor is not used, connect ILIM to VIN. Further
information on ILIM is included in the Limiting the Switch
Current section of this data sheet.
The ADP1108 internal oscillator provides 36 µs ON and 17 µs
OFF times, which is ideal for applications where the ratio
between VIN and VOUT is roughly a factor of three (such as
generating +5 V from a +2 V input). The 36 µs/17 µs ratio
permits continuous mode operation in such cases, which
increases the available output power.
An uncommitted gain block on the ADP1108 can be connected
as a low-battery detector. The inverting input of the gain block
is internally connected to the 1.245 V reference. The noninverting
input is available at the SET pin. A resistor divider, connected
between VIN and GND with the junction connected to the SET
pin, causes the AO output to go LOW when the low battery set
point is exceeded. The AO output is an open collector NPN
transistor that can sink 100 µA.
The ADP1108 provides external connections for both the collector
and emitter of its internal power switch, which permits both
step-up and step-down modes of operation. For the step-up mode,
the emitter (Pin SW2) is connected to GND and the collector
(Pin SW1) drives the inductor. For step-down mode, the emitter
drives the inductor while the collector is connected to VIN.
The output voltage of the ADP1108 is set with two external
resistors. Three fixed-voltage models are also available: ADP1108-
3.3 (+3.3 V), ADP1108-5 (+5 V) and ADP1108-12 (+12 V). The
fixed-voltage models are identical to the ADP1108, except that
laser-trimmed voltage-setting resistors are included on the chip.
On the fixed-voltage models of the ADP1108, simply connect
the feedback pin (Pin 8) directly to the output voltage.
General Notes on Inductor Selection
When the ADP1108 internal power switch turns on, current
begins to flow in the inductor. Energy is stored in the inductor
core while the switch is on, and this stored energy is then
transferred to the load when the switch turns off. Both the
collector and the emitter of the switch transistor are accessible
on the ADP1108, so the output voltage can be higher, lower, or
of opposite polarity than the input voltage.
To specify an inductor for the ADP1108, the proper values of
inductance, saturation current, and dc resistance must be
determined. This process is not difficult, and specific equations
for each circuit configuration are provided in this data sheet. In
general terms, however, the inductance value must be low
enough to store the required amount of energy (when both
input voltage and switch ON time are at a minimum) but high
enough that the inductor will not saturate when both VIN and
switch ON time are at their maximum values. The inductor
must also store enough energy to supply the load, without
saturating. Finally, the dc resistance of the inductor should be
low, so that excessive power will not be wasted by heating the
windings. For most ADP1108 applications, an inductor of
47 µH to 330 µ⌯, with a saturation current rating of 300 mA to
1 A and dc resistance < 0.4 ⍀ is suitable. Ferrite core inductors
that meet these specifications are available in small, surface-
To minimize Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), a toroid or
pot core type inductor is recommended. Rod core inductors are
a lower cost alternative if EMI is not a problem.